MASTER PLAN

PART I INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1
a) A Brief History of Dikome Balue Subdivision and its Infrastructure

Dikome Balue is the largest traditional subdivision in the SouthWest province and has a long proud history. It consists of 14 villages (Map 1- Location). Oroco-Balue is the tribe name, and their language is called Lul Wei. The Municipal Council and Lord Mayor were created by decree # 95-082 of 24 April, 1995.

The main village, Dikome, is situated in an enclaved area 60 miles from Kumba. In the rainy season the road is impassable. During the dry season, it is tortuous. The first schools were built by missionaries in 1928, and in 1936 the population was 4,000.

The last census was in Dec, 2005. The government has not released the figures as yet. Prior to that, the census figures are from 1985 and are totally inacccurate, as the numbers do not reflect the growth in the last 30 years. In any case, for our purposes here, the population is estimated to be approximately 12,100. (Map 2- Population)

The Lord Mayor and his council were elected in Nov 2007. He has 2 Deputy Lord Mayors and 24 councillors. The Council has 3 permanent workers, an SG and a Treasurer.

The National Government (through an elected President and Parliamentarian) oversees administration and tax collection and offers some technical assistance through an appointed Provincial Government Senior Divisional (SDO) Officer and Divisional Officer (DO) and various levels of Ministry Delegates. However, the Law of Decentralization has downloaded the majority of activities associated with good governance to the Rural and Urban Councils but with very limited financial and technical resources.

The people of the subdivision are a peaceful and good natured folk. The literacy rate is high for the youth but low for older adults. There were primary schools run by missionnairies since the 1920’s. AIDS is not followed up with local area committees since they built treatment centers in large centers. Malaria continues to be a serious threat (usually acquired in Kumba or other hot areas), even though there are few mosquitoes in the area. People do however use mosquito nets for sleeping.

The Dikome Balue Subdivision infrastructure is weak. A few villages have pipe-borne water but over a third of the population drink water from a stream. No villages have electricity and no roads are paved.

Dikome Village has the following building infrastructure: a village staff office (with no windows, doors and a dirt floor); a DO Headquarters being built; a gendarmerie; Ministries of Basic Education, Finance and Agriculture are represented although we have never seen anyone in the Finance building; proposed Council Chambers and offices; Presbyterian Hospital with 14 beds, Government Health Centre (1 bed), and traditional
Medicine Man; nursery, primary and high school (dormitory under construction), a technical school is at Ebobe with 40 students attending even though there is no electrcity; Churches of Catholic, Presbyterian, Apostolic, Church of Christ and 5 burial grounds for Chiefs, Catholic, Presbyterian, mysterious deaths and non-denominational; a very well respected traditional area with an Etana House (for men only) and an Esone House (for women only) and no cars/trucks allowed in the Square; numerous bars that sell wine and beer and some soft drinks; 12 convenience stores, 2 pharmacies, 2 telephone call houses, 1 petrol selling place, 1 oil selling place, 1 credit union and I photo copying and print making shop. In addition there are carpenters, and furniture builders as well as artists and artisans.

There are no sanitary sewers only pit toilets with some septic systems in the village of Dikome. Some are walled only, some are walled and roofed but too many have neither. The water system is adequate and there are specialized villagers whom the Lord Mayor can rely on to make repairs. He will be instituting a Water Board with local Water Management Committees representing all the villages in the near future. The water has not been tested; however, the maintainers do insert chemicals at certain times to ensure that the water is potable. There is no electricity at present, however the government has begun rural electrification and will be installing a large deisel generator. The exact site is still under dispute.

Storm water run-off and the ensuing erosion is a serious problem during the long rainy season and is a constant struggle of maintenance during the dry season by the Council. At the moment, the village of Dikome is strongly controlled by the traditional leaders. Rules and regulations are understood and enforced. There is no garbage system but then there is no garbage problem as they are a small and clean population. There is minimal littering and they choose to burn when there is enough.

Telephone networks are with MTN when there is a signal. It is not constant. There is no internet.

However lacking in amenities, the residents are a warm, close-knit community, very welcoming to strangers and deeply steeped in their tradition and history.

b) ABOUT THE MASTER PLAN

The long term (25 years or more) objective of the Master Plan is to ensure that Dikome Balue Subdivision becomes a place where there are opportunities for its residents to work in the villages and its immediate surrounds and enjoy themselves in a safe, healthy and prosperous environment. These are areas where people, business and government balance structured development and infrastructure with the protection, management and enhancement of rural landscapes, cultural heritage and natural resources.

Specifically, the purpose of the Master Plan is to:

i) Identify existing land uses;
ii) Provide a framework for identifying and evaluating future land use opportunities with respect to improving the life style and ease of access to public facilities;
iii) Curb all haphazard and unplanned development by guiding the future form of physical development of the subdivision with respect to land use and major infrastructure (potable water, energy, transportation, sewage and drainage and solid waste management);
iv) Provide the basis for infrastructure (public/private works), plans, and actions (eg related to health, education, culture, recreation, tourism etc) within the subdivision;
v) Inform the public, business, industry, commerce and other levels of government of the Council’s intentions for development; and,
vi) Assist in the prevention and resolution of land use conflicts.

The many features of the Master Plan include:

i) Any future population growth will be accommodated primarily in cost effective serviced (infrastructure) urban areas;
ii) There is a need and demand for a variety of housing and public related institutions;
iii) Agriculture will continue to be the dominant activity and thus its economic viability is vital especially with respect to intensive farming and pasture development;
iv) Mixed use farming, specialty crop cultivation and the development of agricultural related businesses, commerce and industry (ie agro-businesses related to fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, beans and cabbages etc) is to be actively encouraged;
v) Retail, commercial, financial, educational, medical and information services and other facilities will be established in a focused but phased basis related to population growth and movement;
vi) Forests and forest products will become increasingly vital to economic viability. Council will develop an association with the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife to undertake community forest and woodlot management plans across the subdivision;
vii) Natural environmental considerations will increase in importance (watershed, forestry, woodlot and wildlife management etc);
viii) Hygiene and sanitation initiatives (quality and quantity of potable water, solid and liquid waste management) are of paramount importance;
ix) Light industry, warehousing/distribution, building supplies and vehicle (truck, car, motor bike) related activities will be encouraged to locate to fully serviced industrial zones to be established at the edges of existing and potential residential areas;
x) Anticipating traffic growth, pedestrian safety will become an important issue. Sidewalks (pavements) should be established especially in the vicinity of the primary school;
xi) Council will work closely with the village and private sectors responsible for water and energy supply and consider public-private partnerships;

Unless the Master Plan is adopted it will be almost impossible to enforce. To be effective, the Plan needs the total support of the Council backed by the residents to make it a reality. Together with the economic development report and DIDECO, it is also hoped that the document can be parlayed into crucial funding for major infrastructure works.

Of prime importance in the enforcement of the Master Plan is the Zoning By-Law. It tells you how to do it. Again, in order to be effective, it needs to be approved, and Council needs to encourage the activities of the By-Law enforcement officer.

c) Background

Almost immediately after being elected in 2007, the Lord Mayor of Dikome Balue requested aid from CESO-SACO. The volunteer advisors could not accept at that time. In 2009, the Lord Mayor spoke with DIDECO, the Dikome Development Corporation and they decided to pursue volunteer advisors once again. The Dikome Rural Council passed a resolution to request a volunteer from CESO-SACO to prepare a Master Plan for the Dikome Balue Subdivision. Shirley Crockett MCIP RPP and her husband Alan Buck P Eng arrived in January 2010 to begin the assignment.

Under the most recent decentralization law of Cameroon 2004/017 22 July 2004, town planning has been devolved to the council level to include these major activities:

• Developing and managing public urban parks;
• Drawing up and executing council investment plans;
• Awarding, in association with the State or the region, contract plans for the achievement of development objectives;
• Preparing land tenure plans, town planning documents and concerted development plans, urban rehabilitation and land consolidation plans;
• Organizing and managing public urban transport;
• Carrying out land development operations;
• Issuing town planning certificates, authorizations to subdivide real estate; authorizations to settle, building and demolition permits;
• Building and maintaining council roads and conducting similar activities;
• Developing and servicing housing estates;
• Lighting public highways;
• Addressing and naming of streets, public squares and edifices;
• Constructing and maintaining unclassified rural roads and ferry boats;
• Setting up industrial zones;
• Contributing to the electrification of areas inhabited by the poor;
• Granting authorizations for temporary settlement and other works.

What has not yet been devolved are the financial and technical resources to proceed. Town Planning and Housing has been restructured into a technical service within the Ministry of Property and Land Tenure. This technical service offers services for a fee but the councils have few financial assets and cannot afford even the most rudimentary service.

d) Municipal Infrastructure

Details on the council committees and what they have been doing about decentralization in order to address responsibilities outlined in the Law of Decentralization:

  1. FINANCE COMMITTEE

Chair: Ebanje Nifondo Dikome
Secret: Etongwe Joseph Ebobe

Membership: Itoe Simon Sakwe Weme
Wase Christina, 2nd Deputy Betenge
Mary Waiti Nanje Mbombe
Responsibilities:
• Putting in place mechanisms for collecting the various Council taxes
• Identifying Council Fundraising sources
• Establishing nominal rolls involving the 14 villages of the Council area
• Revenue generating projects
• Studying and voting of Council budgets and forwarding same in draft form to the municipal Council for adoption

Issues: The Committee does not meet often enough to make a difference as the Council has still not found various ways to create a revenue generating base.

2. YOUTH, SPORTS AND LEISURE

Chair: Ngoe Japheth Betenge
Secretary: Sakwe Terence Itende
Members: Ngoe Raymond Bosunga

Issues: Village to Village games are on hold due to a lack of funds for equipment, jerseys and a ‘cup’. The ToR are unclear and not mentioned in the SG’s Committee details.

3. INFRASTRUCTURE COMMITTEE
(Economic Development and Village Planning)

Chair: Pastor Itoe Henry Mukete Mofako
Secret: Pastor Samuel Elangwe Ndonono
Membership: Chief Mokete John Mekoma
Itoe Margaret Nanje Weme
Responsibilities:
• Infrastructure: municipal buildings, market, grand stand, culverts, parks, and road maintenance
• Economic development: agricultural activities, pastoral, fishery, snails, bees, poultry
o Tourism
o Organization of mini-agri fares and trade fairs
o Timber exploitation
• Village plan and development
o Village development plans
o Preparation of land tenue plans and documents
o Naming of streets, public squares
o New layouts

Issues: All the members are from outside Dikome Village and Dikome is the only village with enough population to warrant any kind of development plans. What exactly is their mandate and what have they been doing – totally unclear and ineffective.

3. ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

Chair: Monyongo Benson Betane Dikome (Kumba)
Secret: Etongwe John Mofako
Membership: Maya James Bona
Bebula John Difenda
Responsibilities:
• Drinking water supply
• Clean up of streets, roads and public places
• Restoration and location of council forests
• Combating insanitation, pollution and nuisances
• Protection of water sources
• Council Enviro Action Plans
• Creation, maintenance and management of Council parks and gardens
• Planting of trees and flowers in villages.

Issues: It has been 3 years since the Committees were formed and there is still no Sanitation Officer, no council forest, serious issues with deforrestation, and weak water supplies.

4. CULTURE, COMMUNITY AND LANGUAGES COMMITTEE

Chair: Chief John Itoe Betenge
Secret: Nadiembe Mande Peter Bonji
Membership: Mofa Sophie Iye Dikome
Responsibilities:
• Organize cultural events, literacy and artistic competitions
• Set up and manage socio cultural centres and public libraries
• Museums and archives

Issues: There are no language issues since all Balue speak the same language, there are no public libraries and certainly no museums and archives.

5. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE

Chair: Alyosis nanje Elangwe Difenda
Secret Etenge Lydia Dikome
Membership:
Responsibilities:
• Health
o Civil status
o Health centres
o Hygiene and sanitation campaigns
o Sanitary inspections
o Clean village competitions
Education
o All aspects
Literacy – eradicate
Technical and vocational training
o Draw up a plan for vocational integration
o CEAC, women’s house and other training centres

Issues: The terms of reference are all encompassing and there are only 2 members. Is this a reasonable setup or a recipe for failure?

The new law states a requirement of quarterly sittings of Council. In addition there is the issue of payment to Councillors for sitting. The funds are not always there and the Ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralization is not forthcoming. The Council Committees usually sit the minimum number of times, which is twice a year. That makes for a poorly organized and ill functioning Council.

e) The Plan

This document constitutes the Master Plan (the Plan) of the Dikome Balue Subdivision (the Municipality).

The Dikome Balue Subdivision Master Plan is undertaken by authority of the Lord Mayor of the Dikome Council referred to in Section 34(1) of Law # 2004/003 of 21 April, 2004, to Regulate Town Planning in Cameroon, and in accordance with the laws and regulations of the Republic of Cameroon.

The basis of this Plan is that:
• Development in Dikome Village should be in the form of local industry. Unless this happens the village will continue to stagnate and become a shadow of itself every 6 months;
• Industry relates to employment. The Village needs to find work for its men, youth, and women. Once established (such as a sawmill as an example), this minimizes the numbers of people farming (thus increasing the efficiency of farming and perhaps a rent-a-farm economy) and ensure a stability and economy for all concerned;
• Once the villagers discover the means to maintaining their road (discussion, negotiation and motivation- see Appendix E – Economic Development Scenarios), their standard of living will increase a hundred fold;
• Future growth will be accommodated in serviced areas (road frontage, water, electricity, secondary schools and adequate health facilities);
• Through improved agricultural management and the introduction of modern practices such as mechanisation, agriculture and co-operatives will become a more viable economic activity;
• Environmental considerations will be increasingly important;
• Education will become a priority in order to provide children with better opportunities and offer adults continuing education options ; and,
• The Council will work closely with the DO, the SDO, the Chief and Chairman of the Traditional Council and other appropriate bodies when implementing this Plan.

Goals and Principles of the Plan

The main goal of this Master Plan is to increase the standard of living in Dikome Balue Subdivision and all the villages. It is necessary for the continued viability of the Village and the Subdivision as a whole.

In order to do that this Plan has been prepared following three principles which will provide direction for the policies of this Plan.

1 Healthy Communities
• A healthy community will nurture the collective health and well-being of residents to provide for an overall higher quality of life.
• In brief, a healthy community is defined as a village with a safe water source, a system of sanitation, schools, electricity, a navigable road, and a strong community spirit.
• If people do not understand the causes of ill-health and how they can improve their health they cannot make decisions about investing resources and time to improve their village. This becomes the role of both the Traditional Council and municipal Council, to help educate the communities regarding personal hygiene in particular and sanitation in general.
• Community members need to be aware that improvements in their environment or hygiene need to be sustained over the long term to see improvements in their health.
• Also, unless people use the new facilities properly – wash their hands after defecation, store water safely, bathe regularly, clean clothes and utensils properly, diseases caused by poor water and sanitation may still exist.

2 Growth Management
• Growth in Dikome Balue Subdivision and in Dikome Balue Village will occur in the context of clearly defined boundaries. This will prevent unnecessary sprawl and optimize the use of the electricity and water distribution grids. This is especially important as it relates to wood products and deforestation which is now about a 5km radius around Dikome.

3 Sustainable Development and Technology
• The future development of Dikome Balue Subdivision and Dikome Balue Village will be pursued in a manner that ensures current needs can be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
• Also, sustaining local technologies and introducing new ones necessitate the acceptance of the fact that simply installing infrastructure such as a bore hole or a well, will not improve the community health if it is allowed to become nonfunctional.
• In order to be sustainable, both traditional and municipal Councils, together with the DIDECO must play a role in increasing the awareness of community members about the different options for intervention. This should increase the locals’ participation in the decision making process and help them to select solutions that are appropriate for their community.

PART II TOWN AND VILLAGE LAND USE

Dikome Balue Subdivision is comprised of 14 villages all with their own individual identities. Some are better off than others but all have proud residents. The residents tend to live in their village during the dry season and travel to their farm for the rainy season. Tradition is deeply ingrained.

Existing land uses within the boundaries of the Villages can include, residential, commercial/office, institutional, agricultural, light industrial (tea processing), environmentally sensitive, traditional/cultural and tourist areas.

Chapter 2 Traditional Influences and Cultural Heritage

2.0 GENERAL
The Master Plan contributes to the preservation and continuance of existing traditional and cultural heritage resources, buildings and areas. Cultural heritage in Dikome Balue Subsivision and Village is expressed via the Paramount Chief, Sango wa mboka (father) of the village, the Nyango wa mboka (mother) of the village, Local Chief, Chairman (Deputy Chief) and Traditional Council, as well as the sacred and ceremonial buildings. It is also expressed in the manner in which certain occasions are observed, such as holidays and observances, funerals and weddings. (see Dikome Village Center Map-3)

In Dikome Balue, the attachment to tradition and home land is so strong that the DIDECO is founded on that principle. The traditional infrastructure sustains the moral fiber of the community. When the villagers suffer transgressions, the
Traditional Council is quick to act and set standards and allot punishment. Modern issues such as drug use and prostitution are seen as emerging problems, as is youth arrogance and the usual generational issues.

In addition the Balue people hold a Customary Court once a month in the Village of Betenge. The President is chosen based on the number of years he has worked in the court system and he should be a Notable of the area. At the present time there are only 4 representatives for the 14 villages, they need 2 more. They presently have to hire a Registrar to note down all cases, they are awaiting the government to appoint one. Cases include theft of livestock, food etc, land disputes including boundaries, and marriage disputes (dowry system)

As the Village grows and prospers, certain problems will go away only if handled properly at the onset. It will be interesting to see how the Traditional Council handles their new modern world.

2.1 GOALS
To preserve and continue traditional and cultural mores, to foster civic pride, and to strengthen the local identity factor – Pride of Place.

2.2 POLICIES
2.2.1 The Paramount Chief, Sango wa mboka, the Nyango wa mboka, village Chiefs and Chairman of the Traditional Council together with the Lord Mayor and DO, will encourage the creation and placement of attractive and appropriate signs welcoming the residents to their village, for example, “Welcome to Dikome Balue, a village of natural beauty and traditional lifestyle”.
2.2.2 The Municipal Council will encourage community efforts and cultural events celebrating the heritage of the Municipality i.e. building thatched roofs, dance and music festivals etc.
2.2.3 The Municipal Council together with the Traditional Council will urge the government (SDO/DO) to send a Registrar for the Customary Court.
2.2.4 The Municipal Council will consider building a new council office but stay in the traditional core area.

Chapter 3 Housing & Residential areas

3.1 GENERAL
Residential areas within Dikome Balue Subdivision are where people live and they exist side by side with all other uses. Building lots have not been controlled. A few houses have been allowed to be built that are behind the main row. This has to be discouraged as safety and proximity due to possible disease breakout is too dangerous.

Houses in Dikome Village are rarely sold. The tradition is that the property stays in the hands of the family. Elderly and the young share the premises but only because the cost of building a separate home is increasingly prohibitive. The houses are built of wood (predominantly a local white wood), and this has resulted in a 5 km rim of deforestation around Dikome Village. Trees are increasingly farther away and thus the distance translates into increased cost for even the smallest upkeep and repair. Part of the upkeep problem is that all wood for houses are cut by chain saws and are thus not planed. This removes what would be a protection for the wood and allows nicks and cuts to further harm the wood and allow termites etc to infest.

The Lord Mayor and his Municipal Council does a turn in the village and if a home does not have proper window shutters, a door, a roof, a sound structure, a proper floor, and a pit lattrine, the house is marked with red paint on the exterior wall. The Council expects that once the infractions have been rectified, the owner will then paint the house to remove the red X. The wood has weathered and is quite attractive since they are all consistent. It has been suggested that perhaps the red X could be placed on a window and a door, not the wall. Paint is a luxury few can afford, nor should they. Priorities are what they are, and painting just windows shutters and doors would also achieve the same result but with added charm.

Backyard vegetable gardens grow tea, plantains, certain fruit, coffee, cocoa, coco yams. Dikome also has some great gardens and decorating hedges that are very pretty.

Within the Traditional Square no vehicular traffic or roads are permitted. This affects 10 homes including the Chairman and Nyangi wa mboka’s home. The houses are built on either side of the ETANA House-Traditional Male House (has a tin roof unfortunately) and the ESONE House, a Traditional Female House (grass roof), with substantial open space. The homes are crowded and not all have proper floors. The average property has a main house with 1 or 2 bedrooms, an outdoor kitchen and a pit latrine area near the garden. In this area there is 1 stand pipe that everyone shares.

Some quarters have larger homes made of stone with running water and an indoor septic system. They do not have hot water either, and would also have a standpipe outside in their court yard. There are no 2 story houses. Buildings with the traditional grass roof are usually the kitchen and the latrine, and some generally belong to the less well-off residents as they cannot afford zinc or choose not to use it. The community memory of how to build a thatched-matt roof has not been lost.

3.3 GOALS
To provide every residential neighbourhood with a healthy living environment that promotes a higher quality of life and increased social interaction.

3.4 OBJECTIVES
3.4.1 To provide for a variety of housing densities and housing forms that are safe, clean, appropriate for the area and affordable; and,
3.4.2 To reduce the number of Villages without potable water from 10 to 0 and the number of Villages with no electricity from 0 to 14.

3.5 POLICIES
3.5.1 Home occupations are permitted as long as they are compatible with the surrounding area. They must not cause a public nuisance due to noise, dust, odours, vibration, hours of operation or traffic generation.
3.5.2 Pedestrian walkways will be made of dirt on the outside of a ditch or constructed of wood for placement over the ditch where room is minimal.
3.5.3 Gardens and green space will be permitted everywhere but within 1m of a pedestrian walkway for visibility and safety issues.
3.5.4 Any large business, commercial or industrial enterprise is not permitted in residential areas.
3.5.5 Existing residential compounds in areas without basic services should be renovated and upgraded maintaining the integrity and traditional design of that quarter.
3.5.6 Unvented pit toilets are no longer permitted in residential compounds. Pipe venting and appropriate netting (bamboo poles can also be used) can be purchased through the Council.
3.5.7 Agricultural livestock is to be controlled within all the villages and appropriate fines charged.
3.5.8 New housing is to be provided with sufficient side yards for sanitation purposes.
3.5.9 Opportunities are to be provided for a variety of owner occupied and rental accommodation.
3.5.10 All housing shall be provided with basic services such as running potable water, electricity, indoor toilets (where feasible) and all facing a road.
3.5.11 Potable water systems will be increased through the Dikome Balue Water Board ensuring healthy standards.
3.5.12 Innovative alternatives of other electricity sources are to be encouraged.
3.5.13 Rehabilitation and renovation of existing houses which are sub-standard is to be encouraged. (pit toilets too close to the house; too many pit toilets too close together; no road access).
3.5.14 New residential growth will be encouraged by infill in medium and low density quarters.
3.5.15 Encourage the promotion of a neighbourhood Clean-Up Campaign and other smart and healthy back yard habits.

Chapter 4 Economic Development & Commercial uses

4.0 GENERAL
The Master Plan contributes to the economic health of the Subdivision, the Division and the Province as a whole by supporting economic growth and development, by doing so in a manner, which is efficient and financially viable over the long term.

Economic development attractiveness to future investment includes the location of facilities and amenities as well as the overall look of a Village.

Opportunities for future economic development include an Incineration, Composting and Recycling Depot; future thatched roofs on traditional and communal buildings; and business opportunities as identified in the Economic Development Proposals.

At the time of writing within Dikome Village there are 8 motor mechanics, 12 carpenters, 6 builders, 7 cane workers, 10 chain saw operators, 11 shop operators, numerous tailors/seamstresses and hair dressers and barbers. In addition there are 3 transport operators bringing passengers and goods to Kumba on a daily basis. Professionals include technicians, doctors and nurses, and accountants. There are a few government workers and municipal staff.

Dikome Village houses the offices for the Delegate of Agriculture who travels a great deal as he represents the entire subdivision. The DO is building an office and a home, the Gendarmerie has an office. The Municipal Council will be building an office soon, their temporary quarters do not have a floor, doors and windows.

Because of the lack of a good road, there is no market in Dikome. They travel to Kumba on a regular basis for their goods and supplies. Banking is at a minimum with several nanjes and 1 proposed credit union. There is no public toilet in Dikome Village. There is no garbage collection system yet, it has been proposed to the Traditional Council that they begin Clean-Up campaigns on a monthly basis. The Business community has been asked to form an Association (BIA), and to find a site for the Incineration, Composting and Recycling Depot.

There are several quarries and all villages have stone availability. Demonstrations on erosion control using stones for ditch lining took place and were well attended. A Steering Committee has been initiated to handle the road to Kumba issues.

4.2 GOALS
4.2.1 To create a favourable economic climate, diversify the employment base and promote Dikome Balue Subdivision as a prime business location within the South West Province;
4.2.2 To provide a focal point within the Dikome Village area; and,
4.2.3 To provide a vibrant, healthy, economically viable commercial area within all the villages.

4.3 OBJECTIVES
4.3.1 To create a community where the residents can live in reasonable proximity to their workplaces;
4.3.2 To encourage the growth of Dikome Balue Council’s recreational and tourism opportunities;
4.3.3 To increase the ‘export’ component while decreasing the ‘import’ component of the Subdivision’s economy;
4.3.4 To create and adopt an Economic Development Plan prepared by a qualified professional;
4.3.5 To create and adopt a Tourism Development Plan prepared by a qualified professional;
4.3.6 The Market Area (to be determined) and immediate surroundings will continue to be the main trading/buying and selling place within Dikome Village;
4.3.7 The Market Area (to be determined) will be renovated to include a toilet system, upgraded buildings/stalls and better circulation lanes;
4.3.8 The Business Improvement Area Committees will create a booklet of core services available in Dikome Village Town; and,
4.3.9 Business Improvement Area committees will ensure the provision of a range of products and services (financial, legal, communications etc) to best serve the clientele of Dikome Village.

4.4 POLICIES
4.4.1 In order to achieve the economic development goals, the Municipality will:
a) encourage the retention of existing employment opportunities and the creation of new opportunities;
b) encourage the creation of a Business Improvement Association;
c) encourage the creation of business groups and unions;
d) encourage new retail and commercial developments as per the Economic Development Proposals as prepared by the VAs , while promoting downtown areas as distinctive and attractive locations for retail, office, institutional, tourism and civic purposes (examples include the Traditional Square Commercial area and the new Municipal Office premises at the far end of Traditional Square (Dikome Village Center Map-3);
e) act as a catalyst towards urban design improvements such as sidewalks, tree planting, ditches and stairs;
f) assist businesses to seek assistance of various support agencies and NGO’s to facilitate modernization and diversification;
g) play a significant role within the Road to Kumba Steering Committee; and,
h) see the Economic Development Proposals as prepared by the VAs for more information.
4.4.2 The Municipality will promote the development of new tourism and recreational opportunities, including but not limited to:
a) new sports facilities;
b) venues for arts and entertainment activities such as a Outdoor meeting place for theatre and dances;
c) tourist spots are to be developed along the lines of sensitive eco-tourism encouraging and promoting the diversity of their eco-systems;
d) hiking trails;
e) basic tourist accommodation;
f) enhancing accommodation and buildings of natural interest by encouraging the use of grass/thatched roofs;
g) support the preservation of natural areas such as the river systems and lakes system by the local community initiative groups;
h) enhancements of natural areas like the Dikome Subdivision Waterfalls and caves; and,
i) Refer to the Economic Development Proposalsas prepared by the VAs for more information.
4.4.3 Food sellers within The Future Market Area will be required to hold a valid Medical certificate stating that they are free of disease.
4.4.4 The Future Market Area will provide parking in a controlled manner.
4.4.5 The Future Market Area will offer a separate, clean public toilet area for both men and women.
4.4.6 Restaurants in the Commercial Area will provide flush system toilets.
4.4.7 The business community, property owners and the Municipal Council will work together to produce a Business Plan and an Urban Design Re-Development Plan to make the area attractive as a destination point for residents, customers and tourists.
4.4.8 Commercial vendors outside the Market will be encouraged to enhance their store fronts with appropriate landscaping, sidewalks and stairs from the road.
4.4.9 The light industrial and vehicle related industries will be encouraged to relocate further away to a more appropriately designated area.
4.4.10 The Council will encourage the creation of Business Improvement Area Committees.
4.4.11 The Council will lobby the Bus companies to promote the use of the Public Toilet.
4.4.12 The Council is urged to ‘man’ the Public Toilet every day and at off hours as per the Bus schedules.

Chapter 5 The Natural Environment, Sensitive areas and Tourism sites

5.0 GENERAL
the environment – The Master Plan contributes to the protection of the natural environment. A higher standard of living depends upon the health of ecological systems and requires the maintenance of undeveloped spaces, significant environmental features and areas, biological diversity and the protection of irreplaceable natural resources.

Dikome Balue Subdivision has a plethora of natural environmental features worth preserving. Of special note are: waterfalls and caves and the Rumpi Forest area.

At the moment there is no official Clean-Up campaign. Whenever the traditional council feels that it is necessary, volunteers go through the village cleaning up garbage and burning it.

The Rumpi Forest is of global significance for biodiversity conservation, a special haven for certain elephants, and at the same time is very important to the local people as a source of water, food, building supplies, fibres and cultural values.

The whole of Dikome Balue Subdivision is an area of natural beauty with many valleys, hills and pretty landscapes. (Watershed and Natural Area Map-4)

Environmentally sensitive – Within Dikome Balue Subdivision there are a number of environmentally sensitive areas. These include all rivers, streams and springs. Residents are discouraged from using these areas for laundry as soap products and detergents pollute water.

It is imperative to concentrate on removing garbage from the waterways immediately and more importantly preventing the collection of same through sensitization seminars. Over a third of the subdivision population are dependent on streams for their drinking water. Each and every village must be encouraged to search out an ICR Depot and observe regular Clean-Up Campaigns.

More trees need to be planted along the roads to prevent erosion and also add much needed shade during the dry season. Vetiva grass also needs to become more prominent in the prevention of erosion. Reforestation will allow for a lumber business to take hold and for the construction of homes to continue to be built in wood. This will ensure a sustainable ecosystem within the environs of the Rumpi Forest and preserve the Forest for future generations. Initially the funds for the trees will be obtained through a local NGO, after a few years the lumber business will finance the reforestation ensuring a steady suppy for their market.

Tourism sites and areas of interest include:
Rock climbing: Rumpi Forest
Bird watching: Rumpi Forest
Scenic walks: Rumpi Forest Triangle of Betenge, Ebobe and Mekoma
Waterfalls: Mbombe, Dikome, Mofako, Ebobe, Bona, and Weme
Caves: Dikome, Mofako, Bona, and Weme
Local crafts: Dikome, Mofako and Bonji

5.1 GOALS
5.1.1 To promote responsible stewardship of the natural heritage system and wise use of natural resources* in order to provide long term and sustainable environmental, economic and social benefits.
*The natural resources and natural heritage features include Dikome Balue Subdivision’s many significant rivers such as the Meme River and the Nyeke River in Mofako, Youe River; all water ways and waterfalls (Mbombe, Dikome, Mofako, Ebobe, Bona, and Weme); Rumpi Forest; all products from the Rumpi Forest such as elephant parts; and, agricultural and grazing lands.
5.1.2 To protect the Environmentally Sensitive Areas so that they can flourish and grow unimpeded by human growth; and,
5.1.3 To enhance the numerous natural attractions by facilitating access without destroying them so that they can be enjoyed by future generations for years to come.

5.2 OBJECTIVES
5.2.1 To protect natural heritage features for their beauty and future enjoyment by others;
5.2.2 To protect natural heritage features from incompatible development, i.e. (houses too close to water ways, deforestation, burning of grasslands, bush fires and intensive agriculture), insensitive tourist resorts;
5.2.3 To protect residents from natural and man-made hazards, i.e. (polluted waters from illegal dumping of garbage, and storm water management run-off), and damage to property and forestry by uncontrolled bush fires;
5.2.4 To protect the streams and waterways of Dikome Balue Subdivision from the effects of human activity by encouraging the ICR Depot and Clean-Up Campaigns;
5.2.5 To ensure that passive and active recreational activities are compatible with the natural environment; and,
5.2.6 To ensure that the special attractions within Dikome Balue Subdivision are protected from harmful uses and those poachers performing illegal activities are prosecuted within the letter of the law.

5.3 POLICIES
5.3.1 The Council with the help and co-operation of the Paramount Chief, Village Chiefs, Traditional Council Quarter representatives and school principals, will encourage seminars to the public on proper care of streams and water ways.
5.3.2 The Council will share information with every village regarding establishing their own woodlot and nursery, the importance and various methods of tree planting and water catchment areas, and fire protection methods (mature sisal plants).
5.3.3 The Council with the help and co-operation of the Paramount Chief, Village Chiefs, and Traditional Council Quarter representatives will do everything in their power to support the Clean-Up Campaign on an ongoing basis.
5.3.4 The Clean-Up Campaign will be encouraged on a village by village basis and used as a forum for education on dangers of garbage disposal near and in waterways and preservation of the natural beauty of the area.
5.3.5 The Council will encourage the building of thatched roofs for environmentally sound reasons, economy and beauty.
5.3.6 The Council will encourage the establishment of an ICR Depot in every village.
5.3.7 The Council will encourage sensitization seminars on garbage collection, incineration, composting and recycling.
5.3.8 Garbage is prohibited from being dumped anywhere outside of proper disposal bins.
5.3.9 Garbage is to be removed near all water streams or natural springs.
5.3.10 Signs are to be posted prohibiting the dumping of garbage.
5.3.11 More shade trees are to be planted along the roads to prevent erosion and also add much needed shade during the dry season.
5.3.12 Vetiva grass will also be planted in sensitive slope areas for the prevention of erosion.
5.3.13 When dealing with open spaces, water ways and special attractions, LEAVE NOTHING BUT FOOTPRINTS, TAKE NOTHING BUT PHOTOGRAPHS.
5.3.14 The Council will work closely with the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife to bring illegal activities at the special attraction sites to a halt.
5.3.15 The Council will create a Tourism Board regarding the encouragement of touristic pursuits and enhancements on special attractions.
5.3.16 The Council, together with the Council Environment and Natural Resources Committee, will look into ways and means to encourage the population to use alternate fuels for cooking. The continuing use of forest wood for everyday cooking will continue to put undue pressure on the Rumpi Forest area.
5.3.17 The Council, together with the Council Environment and Natural Resources Committee, will promote and encourage reforestation in the 5km radius of Dikome Village.
5.3.18 The Council will encourage the building of ‘wash-areas’ about 20 metres away from popular stream areas normally used for washing to discourage and filter the leaking of suds and pollutants into the water streams.

Chapter 6 Agriculture

6.0 GENERAL
Almost all of the Dikome Village residents have a farm away from the settlement area but not all within the subdivision. The farms that are close (within a half hour trek) are used more frequently. Others are used less often but for longer periods of time when they are used. Village garden crops include cocoa (260 growers), tea (30 growers), bananas, plantain, cocoyams, Irish potatoes, ground nuts, coffee and bee keeping. Farms include the afore-mentioned but coffee (250 growers), is especially exported to Germany.

At the present time there is a very successful twinning with the Town of Schopfeim in Germany. This twinning was first started as result of a Presbyterian Pastor travelling through Germany almost 30 years ago. The exchange has resulted in the Town of Schopfeim purchasing their coffee and in return donating scholarships for children in high schools to continue their education. It is strongly suggested that the Village coffee growers respect this alliance and do everything within their power to continue this important link to the outside economy.

Agricultural initiatives by the Ministry of Agriculture are few since there is no delegate in the Village. The Ministry began the programme of forming CIGs (Common Initiative Groups) among women farmers. This has proved to be somewhat successful in that there are a significant number of them. However education and advice are hard to come by and the groups that are registered are floundering, and becoming discouraged as the Ministry comes up with new ways to impose fees. The latest is that CIGs need to form a Union (3 CIG’s at 20,000 each CIG). There is no need for this blatant abuse. As a registered entity, each and very CIG has the right and the wherewithal to go to international NGOs and get the support they need instead of applying to their government who consistently fails in providing the basic necessities.

All animals are tethered or penned. A previous DO initiated the practice and it remains successful today. Goats etc found wandering around, are picked up and a hefty fine is paid by the owner. Goats and sheep are not usually shorn for their fleece. They are sometimes given as gifts for death celebrations. Cows are not milked either.

Opportunities exist for pillow stuffers (feathers especially geese), and comforters (large pillow case for the bed- stuffed in sections). The fleece of goats and sheep could be spun into wool and then woven into fabric.

Having a mono culture (cocoa and coffee), it is a challenge to function as a Village when for 9 months of the year the farmers leave to tend their cocoa and coffee farms. Only the very young and the very old remain in the Village. Mechanization needs to be introduced in particular with the tea processing industry. At the moment it is very labour intensive and would require more hands helping at certain times to process than there are farm owners. Farmers need to start looking at renting their properties such as coffee and cocoa farms. They would generate some money for themselves and get a portion of the profit as part of the rent, thus leaving them the opportunity to pursue other employment possibilities.

6.1 GOALS
• To continue to encourage the rural agricultural community,
• Assist the agricultural community in ways and means to increase its productivity through increasingly diverse and sustainable farming practices;
• To introduce better practices when managing water for agriculture; and,
• To educate on the benefits of micro-financing to find more markets outside of the Subdivision area.

6.2 POLICIES
6.2.1 This Plan acknowledges the role of the traditional leaders within the subdivision. All leaders of the community including the Paramount Chief, Village Chiefs, Pastors, Priests, and other religious leaders, the Lord Mayor, councillors, government representatives, ministry delegates, businessmen and any interested parties are encouraged to participate in seminars and education sessions to better understand the changing trends in agriculture.
6.2.2 Diversification of crops is encouraged to better meet the needs of a changing populace, more sophisticated market place, and to remain longer in the Village.
6.2.3 Farmers should fence their property as much as possible to ensure crop damage is kept to a minimum from untethered animals.
6.2.4 Farmers should allow approximately 1 metre by the side of the ditch to allow for footpaths (especially on major school routes) to be dug by Traditional Council volunteers.
6.2.5 Farmers are encouraged to protect their lands from wasted rainwater by building small stone dykes and growing hedges along the edges of their fields.
6.2.6 Farmers are encouraged to remove stagnant water (mosquito breeding grounds) by filling in ground depressions where water would collect.
6.2.7 To prevent mosquito breeding and other vermin, water storage facilities need to be fenced off, water reservoir levels need to be varied, weeds need to be removed and area flushed.
6.2.8 Irrigation water demands can be reduced by recycling treated wastewater. Recycled wastewater can be used productively to irrigate fruit such as papaya and bananas. And for irrigating vegetable gardens.

Chapter 7 Institutional (schools, hospitals and churches)

7.0 GENERAL
Institutional uses include schools, churches and mosques, health related outlets such as hospitals, health centers and health posts.

In Dikome Balue Subdivision, there are 3 government nursery schools (Dikome, Difenda and Bonji), 11 government primary elementary schools (Bona, Bosunga and Itende do NOT have any schools), and 1 government high school in Dikome and 1 technical school in Ebobe. (See Map 5- Schools and Churches)

There is no electricity yet for night school and adult classes. Rural electrification should be complete for Dikome Village by early summer/fall, 2010.

There are insufficient secondary schools to encourage the further education of the children. While the literacy rate is quite high for children, it is quite low for the older generation. They could benefit from night classes and other forms of continuing education. The government has a mandatory school attendance for Primary levels only. All other levels require special funding.

Dikome Balue Subdivision enjoys a special relationship with Schopfeim, Germany. This relationship/twinning has existed for over 10 years. One of the benefits to the subdivision are educational scholarships, worth 25,000 CFAs awarded to each qualifying high school students. Many students have benefited from this programme.

Churches include Catholic, Presbyterian, Apostolic, and Church of Christ. There is a Presbyterian Pastor but no permanent priest. The Pastor is also responsible for the larger Presbyterian Diocese and so in that capacity travels a great deal.

Burial of loved ones is in cemeteries. There are specific sites for chiefs, suspicious deaths, Catholic, Presbyterian and non-denominational. They do not bury them in the front yard of their property.

All villages are not created equal with the majority in need of more health posts. The Presbyterian Health Centre is trying to provide as many services as they can however the lack of a road makes it almost impossible to travel to the outer villages on a more regular basis. During times of vaccinations, together with the Government Health Center they travel and administer the doses.

The Presbyterian Health Centre has 14 beds (8 mattresses), a pharmacy and a lab. It also acts as a hospital with visiting surgeons. The electricity supply is sometimes risky but their turbine is now being repaired by a local expert. Whenever generators are necessary, there are many places to borrow one in an emergency. The Government Health Centre has 1 bed and no pharmacy and not very regular hours.

The government has opened AIDS treatment centers in large cities and so the Local AIDS Control Committees have been discontinued. It is unfortunate as there is still a need for them. Health education on many topics is lacking. Monthly sessions have been started and will continue as long as there is an audience. The Presbyterian Health Centre has spearheaded this event.

Other Health Centers include Difenda, which has 7 beds, Bonji which has 10 beds or more, and NEMBI (4 beds) (Ndonono, Ebobe, Mekoma, Netenge and Itende which share a Health Center). Residents without care are Mbombe who travel to Difenda, Mofako who travel to Dikome, and Bona and Weme who (travel to Bonji) and Bosunga is left on its own. (See Map 6- Water and Health Services)

7.1 GOALS
7.1.1 To provide more fully serviced and healthy school settings for students to learn in;
7.1.2 To provide places of worship in as many locations as the worshipers are prepared to fund;
7.1.3 To provide a safe place for burial in each and every denomination; and,
7.1.4 To provide all villages with adequate health facilities to address their residents needs in a timely fashion.

7.2 OBJECTIVES
7.2.1 To provide a school setting that has water and electricity;
7.2.2 To provide more school settings that have sufficient play area for soccer and other games as well as various related school events and functions;
7.2.3 To provide more secondary schools;
7.2.4 To encourage more students to attend schools at all levels and keep the literacy rate high;
7.2.5 To provide a school setting with clean, vented pit toilets for both girls and boys; and,
7.2.6 To provide all villages with – at a minimum – an outreach program with visiting medical personnel for vaccinations, weighing of infants and IWC and ANC clinics.

7.3 POLICIES
7.3.1 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will do all within its power to obtain electricity and water for all school sites within the subdivision.
7.3.2 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will do all within its power to encourage students to continue their education.
7.3.3 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will lobby the government to provide free secondary schooling.
7.3.4 The minimum site area for future elementary schools should be approximately 2.5 ha.
7.3.5 The minimum site area for future secondary schools sites should be approximately 4 ha.
7.3.6 Schools should be sited and designed to provide visual and functional focus for neighbourhood activity. In particular they require safe pedestrian routes for students. (See Chapter 9. Transportation)
7.3.7 All schools are required to provide clean and safe vented pit toilets for both girls and boys. They are to be cleaned and maintained on a regular basis.
7.3.8 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council together with DIDECO, the educational staff and principals will lobby NGOs to provide a Science Laboratory for the Dikome High School.
7.3.9 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council together with the educational staff will lobby NGOs to provide Information Technology (computers etc) for the Government Technical School in Ebobe and the Government High School in Dikome.
7.3.10 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council together with the educational staff will encourage the beginnings of a public library.
7.3.11 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council together with DIDECO will lobby NGOs and American contacts (Old Dikomeans) to provide musical instruments for a school band at the Government High School to foster the love of music and team work.
7.3.12 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will encourage and support the villagers in their quest for appropriate places of worship.
7.3.13 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will insist on every existing place of worship to begin to excavate for future cemeteries.
7.3.14 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will do all within its power to ensure the safety of its residents from water borne diseases.
7.3.15 The Dikome Balue Subdivision Council will support the efforts of the Divisional Medical Doctor in respect to Public Health Care.
7.3.16 All requests for health posts will be evaluated against the Divisional Public Health criteria such as population etc.and a response must be forthcoming within a timely fashion.

Chapter 8 Light Industrial

8.0 GENERAL
There are no light industrial uses at the present time in Dikome Balue Subdivision. Opportunities are ripe for some tea processing, larger scale carpentry and perhaps stone crushing. More research is required for possible funding sources. There is no gas station but you can buy gas in a plastic container from a shop keeper. Stones are available and are not too far away.

There are carpenters, basket makers and rattan furniture designers/makers however they are small scale at this time and operating out of their homes. Some are waiting for an opportunity toexpand, however the cost is prohibitive. A flyer was created with photos and contact information, for a furniture maker to show how marketing could be done. This flyer was sent to Douala and Limbe to test the markets there. An initial contact was created with a driver for the furniture maker to have means for delivery. Details still have to be worked out.

The proposed Incineration, Composting and Recycling Depot will be a light industrial use within each village. The ICRD is a commercial opportunity for someone to run it at a profit, selling ash from incineration (for pit toilets), compost from food scrapes and bottles and metals for recycling. Some minor engineering may be required to avoid potential storm water run-off to the stream system.

Once the road is improved, it will be feasible to have an “automobile grave-yard” as an add-on to the ICRD. A car “grave-yard” and “used-parts” could be established with the same principle of operator selling parts etc to make it financially viable. A saw mill would be a welcomed addition.

A diesel powered generator is proposed for the Dikome Village. The original site has been changed a few times and the Lord Mayor is loathing changing it yet again. However, the newest site is very close to the Government Primary School, as it is a central location and the electricity sources should in theory be in a central location. The noise and potential fumes however are a problem and a concern to the Principal of the School.

The site for the generator should be along the main road between the Presbyterian Church and the DO’s office. In this location it reaches the entire Mission quarters, the rest of the Village and would be ideal to support light industrial uses along the same road.

8.1 GOAL
To provide a series of opportunities for light industrial uses in Dikome Balue Village and Dikome Balue Subdivision and to enhance the local economy by providing incentives for local entrepreneurs.

8.2 OBJECTIVES
8.2.1 To provide for the economic well being of the community with minimal impact on the natural environment, landscape, local residents and the Municipality;
8.2.2 To provide for the ICRD as a business opportunity within each village; and,
8.2.3 To minimize the environmental impacts of future automobile repair shops and garages by locating them on the road between the DO’s office and the border, NOT in the Village.

8.3 POLICIES
8.3.1 All roads leading to the aggregate/quarry areas will be clearly marked and cleaned by operator of site when spills occur.
8.3.2 The extraction areas will be kept landscaped at all times.
8.3.3 The ICRD (Incineration, Composting and Recycling Depot) will be operated on a “for profit basis” and although not a paying position, the Operator of the Depot can charge for ash from incineration, compost and glass. Fees are to be approved by the Dikome Balue Council. It will be located outside the Village on the main road to the border.
8.3.4 The ICRD will be located in each village and one in Dikome Balue Village.
8.3.5 A “car graveyard” operation for compaction and recycling be opened near the ICRD. As the operation of the site will not be a paying position, the operator will be expected to sell parts etc to make it a viable operation.
8.3.6 The Diesel generator will be positioned as such to optimize light industrial uses while still serving the entire Village.

PART III INFRASTRUCTURE (hard and soft services)

Chapter 9 Transportation

9.0 GENERAL
The National Land Tenure and State Lands decree 74-1974, in particular Ordnance 77-2, 10 Jan, 1977, states that the artificial public property of the State shall comprise: Motorways (200m ROW), National and Provincial roads (80m ROW), Divisional roads (50m ROW), local roads (20m ROW) and tracks (not passable by vehicle). In addition, the Ordnance states dimensions for the same roads within built-up areas and for towns.

These dimensions are based on certain assumptions. For example, if the government is building a road and if the road will be tarred. The provincial road to Kumba from Douala was paved by a local company and paid for by international German/French funds. National and Provincial roads built by the state are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Public Works for maintenance and upgrades. Reports are written locally regarding upgrades needed and contracts are awarded from Yaounde. There are no checks and balances with the local municipality to ensure that the work has been completed in a timely and efficient manner and that the work is done to the satisfaction of the local municipality. In fact it has been known to occur, that work has been described on paper but in reality has never occurred.

All other roads are untarred and covered with latterite when available. The building, maintenance and repair of roads are the responsibility of the subdivision through a Council Committee and the labour force of the Traditional Council. The Chairman is approached with a possible schedule and request, then he summons his council and work is scheduled.

Road right of ways within Dikome Balue Subdivision include one lane ruts which do not include ditches (from the border), grass covered as vehicular traffic is very light, and dusty wide lanes. The continually deteriorating condition of the Kumba to Dikome road determines that only 4 wheel drive vehicles can make the journey in the dry season, and only a Unimug truck (a special German all terrain vehicle) dares make the journey in the rainey season.

Critical areas within the Village are shown on Map 7. They include: the Grandstand Bridge area requires a ditch built around the GPS property to end on the slope on the other side to stop the flooding, rocks and gravel to build up the bridge and ditches to be dug along both roads leading down to the bridge; the Pine Tree area requires a ditch across the road to remove standing water, further ditches on the north side and rocks and gravel to build up the road to a reasonable height; the Mission Bridge needs to be designed and built and connected to the road in the Mission Quarter (the roads do not meet yet); and other areas needing immediate drainage attention.

Right of ways within the Village of Dikome are proposed to accommodate the existing light traffic and also be appropriate when traffic increases. No road width is proposed to be over 8-12 metres in width. That width will accommodate single lanes with ditches with passing spaces from the Dikome border to Dikome Village. That width will also serve as generous accommodation for traffic within the village. This allows for the safe movement of goods and people. Parking is proposed to be in very specific locations.

A demonstration was well attended to show the differences with concrete and stones and stones with no concrete. They were both effective in preventing erosion of the soil. In addition a Road to Kumba Steering Committee has been created to handle the many aspects of repairing and manintaining the road to Kumba. (See Economic Development Scenarios, Chapter 10.2)

9.1 GOAL
To facilitate the movement of people and goods by means of an integrated, safe, efficient and balanced road system within the Dikome Balue Subdivision.

9.2 OBJECTIVES
9.2.1 To establish a road system which safely accommodates various forms of transportation (automobiles, trucks, vans, buses, motor bikes, carts, animals and bicycles);
9.2.2 To provide paved surfaces whenever possible;
9.2.3 To provide a latterite surface whenever paving is not economically feasible;
9.2.4 To provide lined ditches (large stone and cement) along all roads;
9.2.5 To provide an integrated, safe walk-way system for pedestrians; and,
9.2.6 To provide a road maintenance system through the Infrastructure Council Committee, the Traditional Council, the BIA and the Youth Committee to regularly repair, upgrade and/or build the vehicular and pedestrian bridges that have been damaged.

9.3 GENERAL POLICIES
9.3.1 The Council (through its Infrastructure Council Committee), the Traditional Council, the BIA and Youth Committee will work closely with the Ministry of Public Works, and DIDECO concerning road maintenance and upgrade requirements for Dikome Balue Subdivision.
9.3.2 The Council will investigate schedules and locations of various graders and form partnerships with other subdivisions regarding maintaining the local access roads.
9.3.3 Road construction is to be monitored by the Council and the local village representatives.
9.3.4 All development shall occur with direct access to a road.
9.3.5 Development shall not occur when fronting on a Local Lane only.
9.3.6 The Traditional Council will encourage all villagers to help provide pedestrian walkways along all village roads.

9.4 VILLAGE TO VILLAGE ROADS (VV Rds)
9.4.1 Within Dikome Balue Subdivision, VV roads that link villages to Dikome Village shall have a ROW of 12m.
9.4.2 The above roads shall have a tarred or latterite surface, lined ditches on both sides and include a pedestrian walkway on one or both sides.
9.4.3 Within Dikome Village, roads shall also have a ROW of 12m, have a tarred or latterite surface with lined ditches on both sides and include covered ditches for pedestrian walkways.
9.4.4 Within Dikome Village only, roads shall also provide on-street parking.
9.4.5 Maintenance of the VV roads shall be by Traditional Council, the Youth Committee and volunteers working closely with the Infrastructure Council Committee.

9.5 SUBDIVISION SECONDARY ROADS (SS Rds)
9.5.1 SS roads within Dikome Balue Subdivision shall have a ROW of 8m, a tarred or latterite surface, lined ditches on both sides, and pedestrian walkways.
9.5.2 Maintenance of the SS roads shall be by Traditional Council, the Youth Committee and volunteers working closely with the Infrastructure Council Committee.

9.6 LOCAL ROADS
9.6.1 Within Dikome Village all local roads shall have a ROW of 8m.
9.6.2 All local roads shall have a tarred or latterite surface with lined ditches on both sides and a pedestrian walkway on at least one side.
9.6.3 Maintenance of these local roads shall be by Traditional Council, the Youth Committee and volunteers working closely with the Infrastructure Council Committee.

9.7 LOCAL LANES – TREKKING ROADS
9.7.1 Local lanes within Dikome Balue Subdivision are defined as not passable for vehicles.
9.7.2 Residential areas that do not front on a Local Road require passage through a Local lane onto a Local Road (Section 682 to 710 of the Civil Code).

9.8 PEDESTRIAN WALK WAYS
With an increase in automobile and truck traffic in the forseeable future, it is imperative to prepare places for the pedestrians (mostly women and children) to walk safely.
9.8.1 Along all roads: village to village, subdivision secondary, and local, a strip of land approximately 2 m wide will be set aside for the use of pedestrians.
9.8.2 The design of a Pedestrian Walkway may take the form of a wooden, concrete (or other material) sidewalk over the drainage ditch along the Village roads where space is limited.
9.8.3 The design of a Pedestrian Walkway may take the form of a cleared path on the other side of the ditch away from the road on a Village road where space is not limited. See the How To Guide for more information on creating a walkway.

9.9 PARKING
9.9.1 Parking for cars must be provided in Dikome Village to alleviate future congestion. The need will continue to increase.
9.9.2 The Council will review off-street and on-street parking regulations to reflect evolving and increasing motor vehicle use.

9.10 ROAD MAINTENANCE
9.10.1 Road maintenance will occur on a regular basis on all the roads within the Dikome Village. Road maintenance will consist of using local materials such as large stones to fill craters in the road, smaller stones to fill the cracks and wood and plant fibers to top it up. The Youth Committee President together with the Traditional Council Chairman and the Road to Kumba Steering Committee will take the lead.
9.10.2 Road maintenance will include digging ditches where none exist and cleaning them where they do exist.
9.10.3 Drivers of small trucks that ply the roads to Kumba will be asked to pay a small tax to help defray the costs of road maintenance. It is suggested that 200 f per passenger be recuperated.

9.11 ROAD ETIQUETTE
9.11.1 Drivers of trucks that do not take care over sensitive areas and drive around on sensitive land will be fined. The fine will be up to 5,000 f when caught.
9.11.2 Drivers who leave fill such as sand or gravel in the middle of the road obstructing traffic will also be fined. They will be required to remove it as well. This fine will be up to 10,000 f when caught.

Chapter 10 Storm Water Management

10.0 GENERAL
The average elevation in the village of Dikome is 1150m and it is dominated by Mount Rata 2 km to the SSW at 1765m. The surrounding hills to the NNW around to the NNE (Ekori, Besimba, Motabore, and Maringo) are 5km away and have elevations approaching 1400m. In a SSW direction, the elevation drops slowly Mofako (1030m) Betenge (960m), and Weme (500m) which is 16 km away.

Watersheds

The area can receive up to 5,000 milimetres of rain annually:

– To the north of Mount Rata a watershed runs south through Dikome and Bakumba and on the east side of Lake Soden; through Dikome it is named Ebongwe and further south it is known as River Yue.

– To the south of Mount Rata 2 distinct watersheds run through most of the municipality’s villages and converge past Lake Soden on the west side (Rivers Ka and Meme).

– A watershed runs west of Mount Rata, Bosunga is in this system; it is named River Moambabay and converges into River Nyangorobe.

– Two watersheds start northeast of Mount Rata approximately 3 km apart. Both run eastwards and converge near Kombone into the Moungo River. Difenda is in the southerly watershed (River Wowe) and Mbombe in the northerly one (River Kombone).

– Two other watersheds, starting 4-5km east of Dikome and Mofako run in a SE direction to the River Moungo, one is named River Menge.

The larger region is bounded to the NW by the Korup National Park (more than 45 kms from Dikome) and more closely to the west by the Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve with an area approaching 700 square kilometres. The remaining forest is communal and is rich in bio-diversity. It is largely untouched, timber is selectively cut for building supplies and fuel; some hunting occurs.

The elevations, watersheds and forest cover determine the climatic conditions and the “highland” species of flora that exist here and that are so instrumental to the economics of the village. (See Map 4- Watershed and Natural Areas)

Storm Water Management
Presently there is no storm water management to compensate for severe topographic elevation differentials in Dikome Balue Subdivision. There is a serious need for it, where storm run-off in the wet season, causes the roads and slope stability to deteriorate at an alarming rate.

Ditches, when they exist are kept clear prior to the rainy season. This is done with the help of the Traditional Council and volunteers. There is no road maintenance, and measures to avoid erosion are nonexistent. Vetiva grass is a known erosion protector but not in evidence in the subdivision.

Ditches need to be created on both sides of the public roads for easy run-off and for the protection of private property however they are dirt and therefore after a rain they erode as well. At critical areas, all ditches need to be lined with large stones (dry or with cement) to prevent erosion and the loss of topsoil.

For long term effectiveness a Storm Water Management Strategy should be prepared. The reason for this is that in areas where drainage and sanitation are poor, and especially where there are no stand pipes, the water runs over the ground during rainstorms, picks up faeces and contaminates water sources. This contributes significantly to the spread of diseases such as typhoid and cholera, and may increase the likelihood of contracting worm infections from soil contaminated by faeces. Flooding itself may displace populations and lead to further health problems.

10.1 GOAL
10.1.1 To prevent rainy season erosion of roads due to inadequate ditch systems;
10.1.2 To minimize pollution by garbage of streams and waterways with heavy run-off; and,
10.1.3 To reduce health hazards resulting from polluted pools of stagnant water.

10.2 POLICIES
10.2.1 The Council will support the efforts of each village regarding the search for solutions to storm water erosion. This includes building ditches where there are none, lining the ditches where they exist and developing a maintenance schedule for the care and lasting of lined ditches.
10.2.2 The Council will encourage the lining of ditches in critical areas with large stones. This can be done dry or encased within cement.
10.2.3 The Council will help fund the planting of vetiva grass along all vulnerable slopes within the Subdivision.
10.2.4 The Council will encourage the formation of a Clean Up Campaign in conjunction with the Environment and Natural Resource Council Committee ensuring the ditches remain free of garbage.
10.2.5 The Council Infrastructure Committee will continue to monitor and supervise all culvert upkeep, bridge enhancements and upkeep, road improvements, building of lined drains.
10.2.6 The Council Environment and Natural Resource Committee together with the Council Social Development Committee will prepare a system of sensitization seminars regarding the dangers of erosion and how to keep your compound clean and safe.
10.2.7 Ditches in Dikome Balue Village will be covered by pedestrian walkways to keep them free of debris and provide a place for pedestrian traffic.
10.2.8 Roads will be covered with laterite and/or paved in order to minimize run-off of loose material into the ditch system.
10.2.9 Residents will be sensitized regarding the importance of the ditch system and will be encouraged to stop throwing garbage by the side of the road.
10.2.10 Residents will be encouraged to remove all stagnant pools of water within their property to eliminate breeding grounds for mosquitoes (malaria carriers).
10.2.11 Road maintenance will include digging ditches where none exist and cleaning them when necessary. (See details of the Road to Kumba Steering Committee in Chapter 10.2 in Economic Development Scenarios)

Chapter 11 Water

11.0 GENERAL
Water, and the need for more secure sources are a priority. At the present time, Dikome Village enjoys a not so secure system that fails about once every 2 weeks. The Village Plumber is responsible for repairs and instead of having a store of necessary parts readily available in the Village, he is forced to travel to Kumba, more frequently than he should. There are 7 standpipes where leakage is common, and 6 new standpipes recently connected in the Mission Quarter and 5 private connections. (See Map 6- Water and Health Services)

They are in the process of looking for another more secure source, but in the meantime the catchment area now serving the Village is under threat. The large concrete pool was covered by a net to keep it clean. That net has fallen into disrepair. The small trickle of water entering the catchment pond is unsecure and stretches up the mountain side. Chemicals are added on a regular basis to maintain potability. The water has not been tested in a laboratory setting.

Throughout the 13 remaining villages in Dikome Balue Subdivision only 3 villages (other than Dikome) have organized themselves and with some expert help have prepared plans for separate catchment areas. That means that there is a vulnerable population of over 1/3 of the subdivision dependent on stream water for drinking. This is unacceptable.

With a growing population, the general trend to more water use per person and intensive systems for agriculture will continue to rise. As a result water containment and distribution will continue to be an important issue to address especially in the dry season. The subdivision needs to create a Water Board as soon as possible. The Board acts as an umbrella where the spokes represent the villages as the Local Area Water Committees. The focus of the Board is to eventually provide potable water for all residents of Dikome Balue Subdivision.

The members of the Board are from the villages and should not be municipal councillors (as they require payment for sitting). Members need to be trained on how to find water sources, how to protect sources, how to connect to the sources and how to maintain the system.

The Board should be comprised of 3 committees:
1. Maintenance
• Buy spare parts in Douala and always have on hand. Sell to villages for cost plus 2%. Perhaps DIDECO could be pursuaded to do this.
• Walk around schedule to identify problems
• Train village committee members

2. Liaison and Expansion
• Create Local Area Water Committees
• Together with the Health Centers, organize and hold seminars on hygiene and the dangers of drinking from streams
• Liaise with all 13 villages on issues, problems and creative solutions

3. Accounts
• Oversee operations and maintenance
• Research funding sources and NGOs to pay for water system infrastructures
• Devise a system of payment
• Reinvest profit into supplies and expansion.

11.1 GOAL
To ensure the availability of clean and potable water for all of the residents of the Municipality; and to reuse water as often as possible.

11.2 OBJECTIVES
11.2.1 To reduce # of cases of water borne diseases;
11.2.2 To increase the # of water standpipes in all villages;
11.2.3 To sensitize the population on the dangers of stream water for drinking;
11.2.4 To encourage the residents to not pollute their water sources;
11.2.5 To develop a system of reusing water (grey water as well as black water);
11.2.6 To create a Local Water Board in order to develop, monitor, fund and maintain water systems; and,
11.2.7 To encourage better practices when managing water for agriculture.

11.3 POLICIES
11.3.1 The Council will create a Dikome Balue Water Board to manage all of the water systems within the Subdivision.
11.3.2 The Council will prepare a realistic operating and maintenance budget for the Dikome Balue Water Board. The budget should include a depreciation and capital fund for future expansions.
11.3.3 The Dikome Balue Water Board is charged with securing international, national and local funding towards the provision of water in every village in the Subdivision.
11.3.4 The Dikome Balue Water Board will be organized into several zones for easier coordination.
11.3.5 Membership of the Dikome Balue Water Board should be comprised of individuals who are literate, have an active interest in the community and who are not already councillors in the Municipal Council. Membership should not exceed 10 individuals.
11.3.6 The Dikome Balue Water Board will monitor all of the individual systems and interact with all of the Water Management Committees. Water Management Committees will report on a regular basis (schedule to be determined) to the Dikome Balue Water Board.
11.3.7 The Dikome Balue Water Board will report directly to the Council.
11.3.8 The Dikome Balue Water Board is also charged with organizing, prioritizing repairs, maintenance schedules, with the Water Management Committees for all the systems.
11.3.9 The Dikome Balue Water Board is also charged with securing funds for repairs and regular maintenance work.
11.3.10 The Council will organize workshops and seminars to educate the residents on the hazards of drinking untreated stream and river water.
11.3.11 Farmers are encouraged to protect their lands from wasted rainwater by building small stone dykes and growing hedges along the edges of their fields.
11.3.12 Farmers are encouraged to remove stagnant water (mosquito breeding grounds) by filling in ground depressions where water would collect.
11.3.13 All residents are encouraged to collect rainwater from their sheet roofing into clean oil drums. Use this water for all household uses except for drinking. Re-use the same water for your vegetable and flower garden

Chapter 12 Sanitation

12.0 GENERAL
Presently there is no sanitary sewer infrastructure in Dikome Balue Subdivision. Most individual homes have a form of pit latrine and there are a few septic systems within Dikome Village. Most of the locations do not conform to the minimum distance separation for safety reasons. A significant issue is to persuade owners to build a roof over the pit, even walls. The very real possibilities of significant amounts of rain water in the pit flooding the area with high risks of typhoid and cholera epidemics has not changed minds, yet.

There are no Sanitary inspectors yet although the Council Social Development Committee has sanitation inspections within their mandate. Funds are not yet available for the hiring of the Inspector.

It is strongly suggested that when a toilet is found to be substandard a Notice of Abatement will be issued to the owner. If the toilet is not cleaned by the second visit, the owner is required to pay a fine. The Sanitary Inspector together with the Council Social Development Committee will prepare a set system of fines.

The existing standards for cleanliness are moderate. There are no standards for the building of a latrine, other than providing a roof, walls made from grass (as a minimum), and a hole in the ground with cross sticks (local material) for support.

Another level is suggested for the Sanitary Inspectors. When an owner is given a Notice of Abatement, it is proposed that the owner and his family attend a seminar organized by the Council Social Development Committee on personal hygiene and sanitation. When the inspection resumes and the toilet is still not clean then the owner pays the fine.

The new standard VIP pit toilet is a design provided by Helvetas, an NGO that was based in Bamenda in the NW Province. After 40 years, they have left Cameroon. The VIP pit toilet includes a pipe that acts as a vent to eliminate flies and odor and a concrete floor for easy maintenance.

There are no public toilets anywhere in Dikome Balue Subdivision.

12.1 GOAL
To provide safe, clean and affordable sanitary facilities in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner

12.2 OBJECTIVES
12.2.1 To increase the number of clean toilets in Dikome Village and Dikome Balue Subdivision, especially in the Traditional Square area as the population is dense;
12.2.2 To sensitize the residents regarding the proper usage and cleaning;
12.2.2 To reduce the number of sanitation related diseases; and,
12.2.3 To increase the number of vented pit toilets in the subdivision.

12.3 POLICIES
12.3.1 The Council will hire and encourage a Sanitation Inspector to create a 5 Year Sanitation Strategic Plan towards the creation of more public toilets in the subdivision, communal pit toilet systems in crowded and high risk areas, and vented pit toilets where appropriate. This would be updated every 2 years.
12.3.2 The Council will encourage the construction of vented toilet designs for new and rehabilitated toilets.
12.3.3 The Council will purchase vents and sieves (pipes and bamboo poles and mesh) and subsidize their cost to encourage the rehabilitation of toilets in the subdivision.
12.3.4 The Council will encourage the building of public toilets (1 for women, and 1 for men) for each village with a population of more than 2,000 people.
12.3.5 Each village over 2,000 will create Sanitary Management Committees that will care for and clean the public toilets.
12.3.6 The Council will ensure that the sanitation inspectors are performing their work in a safe and hygienic fashion.
12.3.7 Sanitation and Personal Hygiene seminars will be designed, and held once a month by the Council Social Development Committee together with the Presbyterian Health Center and the Government Health Center.
12.3.8 The Sanitation and Personal Hygiene Seminars will be attended by the families of holders of Notice of Abatement charges (issued by the Sanitary Inspector upon inspection).
12.3.9 The Sanitation and Personal Hygiene Seminars will be held once a month on a regular basis and may also include other health related topics.

Chapter 13 Services and Utilities

13.0 GENERAL
The Subdivision of Dikome Balue is enclaved and as such is located at the end of a 60 mile long road (from Kumba) with no electricity. Rural electrification has begun with the government proposing to install a large diesel generator within Dikome Village and once a suitable site has been chosen, it should be functional by early summer/fall.

Within close proximity to the Dikome Village there are a number of waterfalls. This alternative power source is being actively researched. Cooking is done the traditional way on an open fire with some homes equipped with gas cookers. An open wood fire in their outer kitchen is the common standard. There is no Internet, and there is sporadic MTN service.

Dikome Village has the following: a village staff office (with no windows, doors and floor); a DO Headquarters being built; a gendarmerie; Ministries of Basic Education, Finance and Agriculture are represented although we have never seen anyone in the Finance building; proposed Council Chambers and offices; Presbyterian Hospital with 14 beds, Government Health Centre (1 bed), and traditional Medicine Man; nursery, primary and high school (dormitory under construction), a technical school is at Ebobe with 40 students attending even though there is no electrcity; Churches of Catholic, Presbyterian, Apostolic, Church of Christ and 5 burial grounds for Chiefs, Catholic, Presbyterian, mysterious deaths and non-denominational; a very well respected traditional area with an Etana House (for men only) and an Esone House (for women only) and no cars/trucks allowed in the Square; numerous bars that sell wine and beer and some soft drinks; 12 convenience stores, 2 pharmacies, 2 telephone call houses, 1 petrol selling place, 1 oil selling place, 1 credit union and I photo copying and print making shop. In addition there are carpenters, and furniture builders as well as artists and artisans.

Dikome Village has grassey local roads, some dusty roads but very little traffic so the dust is not that apparent. There is no garbage problem at the moment and the village is clean without having garbage bins. They have been advised that once the main road improves, traffic will increase and dust and garbage will become a big problem. They need to begin now to start sensitizing the population.

13.1 GOAL
To provide adequate services and utilities for the residents of Dikome Balue Subdivision in an economically and environmentally responsible manner

13.2 OBJECTIVES
13.2.1 To provide electrification for all the villages within the subdivision;
13.2.2 To provide telephone network service for all the villages within the subdivision;
13.2.3 To provide the Internet for all villages within the subdivision; and,
13.2.4 To provide a safe location within each village for the ICR Depot, a safe disposal, incineration and recycling of garbage.

13.3 POLICIES
13.3.1 Services and Utilities include utility facilities and corridors for electricity, and a proposed ICRD garbage disposal facility.
13.3.2 The Council will receive regular updates on rural electrification from the Council Infrastructure Committee.
13.3.3 The villages of Mbombe, Dikome, Mofako, Ebobe, Bona and Weme are encouraged to create a Combined Alternative Power Committee, to investigate waterfall power transmission possibilities.
13.3.4 The proposed Combined Alternative Power Committee is to be comprised of 2 members from each village of Mbombe, Dikome, Mofako, Ebobe, Bona and Weme and report to the Council.
13.3.5 The Council will receive regular updates from the Combined Alternative Power Committee.
13.3.6 The Council Natural Resources Committee will obtain status reports from the Department of Rural Electrification, and the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Water.
13.3.7 The Council will work with Orange, and MTN, with regards to growth management in order to give the best possible product to its residents.
13.3.8 The Dikome Business Improvement Association will monitor the activity at the existing ICR Depot.
13.3.9 This site will also take all the garbage from the Dikome (future) Market area.
13.3.10 The Dikome Business Improvement Assocaition will advise on the purchase, obtainment and placement and eventual replacement of garbage bins in the Town area.
13.3.11 Each village Business Improvement Association will locate a safe Incineration, Composting and Recycling Depot.
13.3.12 This village Business Improvement Association will be charged with obtaining an agreement with the owner of land for the use of the property, a schedule for pick-up and delivery, the procurement of garbage cans, and pick-up vehicles for the safe pick-up and delivery of garbage.
13.3.13 The village Business Improvement Associations will be encouraged to paint their garbage cans with the names of their villages.
13.3.14 The village Business Improvement Associations will be encouraged to begin Clean-Up Campaigns as soon as they have found a suitable site.

Chapter 14 Parks, and Community Facilities

14.0 GENERAL
A public park is described as a finite area for passive and active recreational uses by and for the public in an ideal location surrounded by trees, water and shade and benches for quiet contemplation.

The Traditonal Square Public Park is such an area. It is used by everyone during special festivals, for collecting water from the area stand pipe, everyday for playing by children and by the locals for social interaction. The Square houses the tradional Male House (Etana House), the Traditional Women’s Round House (Esone House) and the sacred stones. During a special festival, temporary shaded areas are created on either side of the Square for dignitaries and spectators. This should become permanent with natural ivies growing to eventually provide the shade.

Community facilities within Dikome Village include: a grandstand, soccer pitch at the GPS grounds, a gendarmerie, and a community hall that doubles as the Presbyterian Church. There is no slaughter house, public washroom, gas station, handball area, post office, separate community hall, library, or market. (See Map 3- Dikome Village Center)

The Council is striving for a stadium. In the meantime the children and young adults play soccer games at the GPS pitch. It is not overly used so the need for a stadium may be premature. In the past the Youth Committee had organized Village vs Village soccer games.

The road crisis in the Dikome Balue Subdivision prohibits the creation of a travelling library. A small library has been started by the VAs at the GHS.

14.1 GOAL
To provide for a range of activities, facilities and services to meet the evolving needs of residents of all ages and physical capabilities.

14.2 OBJECTIVES
14.2.1 To develop a system of municipal parks which provide a variety of recreational facilities, civic gathering spaces and the preservation of natural heritage features;
14.2.2 To provide for the growth and appropriate distribution of institutional and community facilities to serve the educational, health, religious, traditional, cultural and social service requirements of the residents; and,
14.2.3 To plan and deliver services in a manner which focuses higher order institutions and community facilities within Dikome Village first.

14.3 POLICIES
14.3.1 The Municipality will encourage the establishment of a public park system.
14.3.2 Parkettes (very small parks) will be situated near areas of downtown for the exclusive use of residents and workers to sit quietly on a bench in the shade of a tree.
14.3.3 Parkettes usually consist of a wooden bench and a tree and some landscaping, water is optional.
14.3.4 Community facilities are encouraged to locate in more dense areas to enable easy accessibility by the majority of the population, such as the Traditional Square area.
14.3.5 Traditional Square area will build permanent shade areas (on each side of the Traditional Men’s Building) for residents on a daily basis that can also be used for dignitaries on special occasions.
14.3.6 All community facilities must have direct access on to a Village Road and include adequate parking facilities.
14.3.7 Day-care centres may be incorporated within any existing place of worship, public or private school or public assembly hall provided each site can demonstrate the ability to accommodate the additional use.

PART IV PROPOSED GROWTH AREAS

Chapter 15 Growth Management & Proposed Growth Areas

15.0 GENERAL
Developments of villages within the Dikome Subdivision have fallen along the lines of tribal affiliations. Former residents from Dikome left the village and went north to first, Old Difenda and then later to New Difenda. There is no driveable road between the two villages and no easy way to walk there either (4 hour trek from Dikome to Difenda). It would be fair to say that under non tribal conditions Difenda and Mbombe and its combined 2,700 residents should be a part of a neighbouring subdivision where it can at the very least access certain facilities like the Town Council, health services, higher learning schools etc. Although Difenda already has certain higher level services, Mbombe has none, not even a water system.

For the above reasons Difenda and Mbombe cannot be a part of the growth scenario of the Dikome Subdivision. (See Map 8- Growth Areas)

Other developments within the subdivison have occurred along a road well travelled from Kumba, a major hub of traffic and commerce. The so-called ‘government’ road leaves Bakumba and goes to Big Ngwanda, then to the Dikome Subdivision. Even though only Betenge, Ebobe and Mofako (also Dikome), would be directly on the good road, Ndonono, just off the road, and Makoma, Itende, Bonji, Diboki, Bona and Weme would also benefit because the travel time to these villages would have been greatly reduced.

However, major truck traffic does not follow that road. They take a shorter road that goes through Bakumba to Massaka, and Lokando to Mofako. Along this route only Mofako and Dikome would benefit. However, the rainy season exodus plays a significant part in the existing malaise and unless industry takes hold, Dikome will stay as it is.

Another village that is at odds with the Dikome Subdivision is the teeny village of Basunga. There is no road and it would take the average person almost 7 hours to trek to it from Mekoma Village. It has no schools, no churches, no health facilities, no services, and approximately 130 people struggling to survive. Although technically the villagers should leave and move to Mekoma, Betenge or Ebobe, there is an interesting twist to this village’s issues.

Directly as a result of random elephant attacks, or so it seems to the uninformed (there is a season for elephant attacks, we just don’t know what it is), it would be an ideal location for a tourist destination. The houses are mostly mat (thatched) and some wood frames. As part of the eco-tourism it could be a perfect fit. Together with the charming triangle of villages of Ebobe, Betenge and Mekoma nestled along the Rumpi Forest edge it could be a strong tourist destination.

Within the Dikome Balue Subdivision, no village has electricity although Dikome Village is on the short list for a diesel generator. Future growth should occur with the advent of electricity, water, road improvements, health facilities, markets, secondary and higher level of schooling.

15.1 GOALS
15.1.1 Growth in Dikome Subdivision will occur in the context of clearly defined boundaries to prevent unnecessary sprawl; and,
15.1.2 Growth will occur first in Dikome Village and extend progressively to Mofako Village for industrial purposes, the triangle of Ebobe, Betenge, and Mokoma (Basunga) for tourism opportunities, and Bonji for general growth, in that order.

15.2 POLICIES
15.2.1 Development in Dikome Subdivision will occur with an emphasis on infill and redevelopment, serviced lots with potable water and VIP sanitation facilities, and mixed uses.
15.2.2 Growth will be directed to Dikome Village as the dominant urban centre and should be in the form of local industry. Unless this happens the village will continue to stagnate and become a shadow of itself every 6 months;
15.2.3 Industry relates to employment. The Village needs to find work for its men, youth, and women. Once established (such as a saw mill as an example), this minimizes the numbers of people farming (thus increasing the efficiency of farming) and ensure a stability and economy for all concerned.
15.2.4 Growth criteria will include water, electricity, road improvements, health facilities, higher educational facilities (such as secondary schools) and local markets.
15.2.5 Potential growth areas will include Mofako for industry, the triangle of Ebobe, Betenge and Mekoma (Besunga) for tourism, and Bonji for general growth and will be monitored by local development associations together with the local councillor.

Chapter 16 Vulnerable Areas

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) factors which identify unhealthy villages can include income, social relationships, access to and use of basic services such as water supply and sanitation, the quality of available health services, individual responsibility and the quality of the environment.

Factors which identify vulnerable areas within our planning context can also include: lack of water supply, lack of sanitation (pit toilets), lack of a health center/post, inadequate schools for the appropriately aged children, lack of electricity for basic needs, access to village via a suitable road, and a lack of local leadership. (See Vulnerabilities and Opportunities Chart- 9)

The following areas (villages) require immediate attention and intervention due to the lack of:

Water Ndonono, Ebobe, Betenge, Mekoma, Itende, Bona, Weme, Diboki, and Bosunga (4,415 people at risk drinking stream water)

Sanitation Mofako, Ndonono, Mekoma, Itende and Bosunga have no system of sanitation, not even pit toilets. These villages need serious intervention in terms of hygiene and health issues

Health centers/posts Mofako, Bona, Weme, and Bosunga need to review their relationships with nearby health centers. The Municipal Council needs to get involved and see what kind of travelling services can be provided.

Primary school Itende, Bona, and Bosunga have no schools. Their children either stay home or travel to a neighbouring village

1. In terms of priority the Water Board needs to be created as soon as possible. With 4,000 people at risk that is over 1/3 of the subdivision’s population.
2. A Sanitation Officer needs to be hired. Together with the local health centers he/she should or-ordinate the health seminars already started to include sanitation issues and general hygiene for all the villagers.
3. Create an ICR Depot (Incineration, Composting and Recycling) in each village to protect the fragile level of their water system.
4. Ask the Traditional Councils in all the villages to begin scheduling the Clean-Up Campaigns as soon as possible.

PART V – IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 17 Implementation

17.0 GENERAL
The Master Plan is for 20 years or so and its contents cannot be followed instantly. It provides a ground work for the gradual construction of much needed infrastructure and demonstrates a growth pattern and what can be accomplished through a determined will of the villagers and encouragement from the Lord Mayor and Council.

The Council is presently under a number of constraints especially financial, regarding the whole or even partial implementation of the Master Plan. Some of these include: no Central Registry for surveyed plans; no assessment rolls for tax information and ownership information; no income from government leased buildings; no effective system of collecting property tax; no police force that reports to Council; and, no By-Law officers to enforce change.

The Master Plan is created in a vacuum and the infrastructure is created as needed with funds provided by external donors. For example, the Sop water supply was recently rehabilitated with funds from Helvetas. Other changes such as the ICR Depot are being initiated at the village level with the hope that others will follow in their steps.

The instruments available to implement the recommendations of the proposed Plan are:
• The Plan itself, when adopted by the Lord Mayor and Council, may be used to establish the necessary guidelines for controlled development of the Town;
• A Zoning Regulation to control use of land as recommended in the Plan;
• A copy of development standards and requirements for layout approval be obtained from the Divisional authorities for reference purposes;
• A Development Budget be prepared to provide for systematic extension of services in order of priority; and,
• Formation of a Council Development and Planning Committee to act as a liaison with Dikome Village and all of the villages towards realizing the Master Plan.

17.1 IMPLEMENTATION
This plan will be implemented by the Dikome Balue Council in accordance with the authority vested under the provisions of the Decentralization Act 2004/017, dated 22nd July, 2004 and under Section 30 of the Law # 2004/003 dated 24th April, 2004, to Regulate Town Planning in Cameroon and other applicable statutes.

17.2 MONITORING
The Municipality will develop along with village representatives, a set of key ‘quality of life’ indicators to measure the progress in achieving a sustainable, healthy community. (See Support Document)

17.3 PLAN REVIEW
The Municipality will produce a periodic monitoring report that the above indicators to assess the success of the policies in this Plan.

17.4 UPDATING
The Master Plan may be amended from time to time to ensure that it continues to embody the policies of Council, enhancing the achievement of the principles, goals and objectives of this Plan.
17.5 Council shall hold a public meeting at least once every 5 years to consider the need for a complete review of the Master Plan or significant components of it.

17.6 PUBLIC NOTICE
17.6.1 Prior to passing or adopting a Master Plan, a Zoning By-Law or amendments thereto, the Council shall ensure that adequate information is made available to the public.
17.6.2 In order to provide ample opportunity for the public to review and discuss the proposed Plans, By-Laws or amendments, notification of any statutory public meeting shall be made by written notice posted at the Dikome Village Council Office, announced by the Town Crier and at all of the places of worship throughout Dikome Balue Subdivision a week before.

17.7 AMENDMENT PROCEDURES
The following changes can be made to the Master Plan and Zoning By-Law without an amendment:
• changes or corrections to format, wording or reference errors;
• alterations in the numbering and arrangement of any provisions; and
• Adjustments to base information on any Map.

Council may initiate amendments to this Plan in response to significant changes to the planning and development environment in the Municipality, in particular:
• as a result of a 5 year review;
• to implement strategic policies; and
• in response to new government legislation.

Chapter 18 Interpretation and Definitions

18.1 All maps must be read in conjunction with the applicable policies of the text. Individual policies shall not be read or interpreted in isolation.
18.2 Figures, measurements and quantities contained in the plan are meant to be approximate unless otherwise stated.
18.3 The indication of roads, parks, and other services shall not be interpreted as being a commitment by the Municipality to provide such services at the planned location by a certain point in time. They are subject to detailed design and capital budget approval by Council on an annual basis.

18.4 DEFINITIONS:
Agro-Forestry: The practice of agriculture along with forestry whereby the trees help replenish nutrients in the soil to maintain a longer and healthier growing season.
Biodiversity: The variety of life in all its forms, levels, and combinations. It includes ecosystem and landscape diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity.
Built-up areas: Areas within villages or towns where development is concentrated. It includes existing development, as well as vacant surveyed and approved lands.
Compound: Privately owned residential home with separate building for kitchen, pit toilet and perhaps other buildings. May also include land for growing some bananas and ground nuts.
Contaminated Sites: These are lands previously used for auto wreckers, automobile repairs, service stations, fuel storage, or for the disposal of construction waste or debris.
Environment: Both the natural and man-made environments, which include: soil, water, plant and animal life, social and cultural conditions, buildings or structures, or any combination thereof.
Forests: Continuous tree coverage in a rural setting.
Groundwater: Sub-surface water, or water stored in the pores, cracks and crevices in the ground below the water table.
Habitat: Areas of the natural environment upon which animal or aquatic wildlife and plants depend for survival as self-sustaining populations, including land and water needed for protection, breeding or food supply.
Home Based Occupation: Use of a residential property or farm for the purpose of conducting businesses including professional offices, personal services, instructional services, home craft business, private day-care, bed and breakfast, trades business excluding manufacturing and retail, repair services excluding small engines and vehicles.
Infill: Development on vacant lots or underdeveloped lots within a built-up area.
Natural Heritage System: A connected group of natural areas, and the native flora, fauna, and related geological features and landforms that contribute to the health and biodiversity of the natural environment. The natural heritage system includes core areas, natural corridors, and linkages including naturalized road allowances that connect natural core and corridor areas.
Quarters: A residential area within a village.
Retail Uses: Uses where goods or merchandise is sold including convenience items, general merchandise, apparel, hardware, home furnishings, specialty retail, automotive products, home improvement products, liquor and beer and includes eating establishments and department stores.
Storm Water Run Off: Rain water that has not been absorbed by the soil.
Subdivision: A political area of administration with an elected Council and Lord Mayor.
Sustainable Development: Development is pursued in a manner that ensures current needs can be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Urban Forest: Tree coverage in an urban setting
Village: Another word for chiefdom that forms part of a Town or Subdivision.
Woodland: A naturally treed area that provides environmental and economic
benefits such as erosion prevention, water retention and the provision of habitat.
Wood Lot: A man-made treed area specifically for fuel and local/community use.
Zoning By-Law: Detailed development control regulations that stipulate among others, set-backs from the road, permitted uses, and uses not permitted.

18.5 From Law 2004/003 of 21 April 2004 to Regulate Town Planning in Cameroon:

Human Settlement: Urban centres and rural communities with at least 2,000 inhabitants covering an uninterrupted and clearly built-on area.
Town Planning: Constitutes all the legislative, regulatory, administrative, technical, economic, social and cultural measures geared towards the harmonious and coherent development of human settlements through the judicious use of land, the development of the said land `and improvement of the living environment areas well as economic and social development.
Urban Renewal: Shall consist of a series of development activities carried out in unplanned built-on areas with dilapidated houses built in the old sector, or spaces intended for the integration of specific equipment or the improvement of urban areas.
Urban Renovation: Shall consist of a series of development operations which entail total or partial demolition of an unhealthy, deficient or unsuitable urban sector with a view to putting up new buildings.
Land Use Plan: A document drawn up to define the allocation of land and the rules governing such allocation in the medium term 10-15. It shall define the area of each of the allocated land and spell out for each of them the rules and special land use restrictions.
Master Plan: A document which lays down the basic guidelines for developing a given urban area, the general use assigned to lands and the schedule for the provision of amenities.

18.6 From Law 2004/018 of 22 July 2004 to Lay Down Rules Applicable to Councils:

Council: A basic decentralized local authority responsible for economic development; environmental and natural resource management; planning and rural and urban development and housing; health and social development; and educational, sports and cultural development.

18.7 From Helvetas: A Reference Manual on Latrine Construction

Pit Latrine (traditional): A simple pit covered with logs where a hole is left in the middle for use. The walls, door and roof are made of local materials.
Pit Latrine (improved): Similar to the traditional except that the floor is a concrete slab with a hole in the middle.
Pit Latrine (ventilated): Similar to the improved except that smell and flies are to a great extent eliminated. This is done by fitting a vertical vent pipe having a fly screen at the top to the pit. Air entering the structure through the door flows through the hole into the pit, causing air from the pit to flow through the vent pipe into the atmosphere.